Tuesday, October 17, 2017

The 12th Annual Los Angeles Archives Bazaar

Los Angeles Archives Bazaar, 2015
Courtesy LA as Subject; photo: Rich Schmitt

History comes alive once again on Saturday, October 21, 2017, as dozens of Southern California’s rare and archival materials come together at the 12th annual daylong Los Angeles Archives Bazaar. Each year, serious researchers, history buffs, and Californiana enthusiasts come to experience a number of Southern California exhibits, documentary film screenings, educational sessions, and other public programming. A distinguishing feature of the bazaar is that unique, private collections and less-visible archives are represented alongside materials from large institutions, helping to tell a more complete story of Los Angeles history.

Look for the California Historical Society booth at this year’s bazaar. Learn about our Los Angeles–area collections housed at the Autry Museum and USC; ongoing projects and collections in both San Francisco and Los Angeles; and statewide opportunities, including our annual California Historical Society Book Award and traveling exhibitions. 

Every year, CHS archivists and staff are on hand at our booth, answering questions, sharing information, and selling books. This year, we offer our newest co-publications: The City of Vines: A History of Wine in Los Angeles (CHS/Heyday), winner of the 2016 California Historical Society Book Award, and ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/Chicano Murals under Siege (CHS/LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes in association with Angel City Press), the companion publication of our current exhibition now on view at LA Plaza. 

Thomas Pinney, The City of Vines: A History of Wine in Los Angeles (CHS and Heyday, 2017)

Erin M. Curtis, Jessica Hough, and Guisela Latorre, ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/Chicano Murals under Siege (CHS and LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes in association with Angel City Press, 2017)

At 11:00 a.m., join CHS’s Director of Exhibitions Jessica Hough, who will speak about CHS's ¡Murales Rebeldes! project, part of the Getty’s region-wide initiative, Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA. She will join other panelists at LA/LA LAAS Lightning Round, which highlights the archives from LA as Subject member collections that are included in PST: LA/LA exhibitions and programs, including the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Center for the Study of Political Graphics, ONE Archives at the USC Libraries, and UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.

Saturday, October 21, 20179:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Doheny Memorial LibraryUSC University Park Campus
3550 Trousdale Pkwy, Los Angeles, CA 90089
Admission is free and open to the public

Monday, October 16, 2017

National Hispanic Heritage Month: A Mural’s Unveiling 85 years ago

Colored digital rendering of David Alfaro Siqueiros’s America Tropical
Courtesy Luis C. Garza; mural © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/SOMAAP, Mexico City

Although National Hispanic Heritage Month has just concluded, here in Los Angeles the celebration of Latina/o heritage is in full swing.

In September, the Getty launched its widely anticipated region-wide initiative, Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA, with more than 70 participating institutions and organizations. Among them are a number of exhibitions featuring the works of Latina/o and Latin American muralists.

Artists and curators featured in Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA stand as a group at the Getty Center, September 2017

In addition to our own ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/o Murals under Siege at LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes and its spotlight installation L.A. History: A Mexican Perspective at Union Station, Latina/o murals are featured in the Skirball Cultural Center’s Surface Tension by Ken Gonzales-Day: Murals, Signs, and Mark-Making in L.A.; CSU Northridge Art Galleries’ The Great Wall of Los Angeles: Judith F. Baca’s Experimentations in Collaboration and Concrete; Chapman University’s My Barrio: Emigdio Vasquez and Chicana/o Identity in Orange County; Laguna Art Museum’s California Mexicana: Missions to Murals, 1820–1930; and Pomona College Museum of Art’s Prometheus 2017: Four Artists from Mexico Revisit Orozco.

It has been said that many Chicana/o muralists in Southern California drew their inspiration from the city’s first public mural, América Tropical (1932) by David Alfaro Siqueiros. As LA Plaza and California Historical Society executive directors John Echeveste and Anthea M. Hartig Ph.D. noted, “Siqueiros’s work, along with those of his Mexican muralist contemporaries fueled the artistic fires of the many Chicana/o muralists who emerged in Southern California beginning in the 1960s. Like Siqueiros, they used their art form to express their frustrations, dreams, hopes, and grievances against a society they viewed as largely oppressive.”

Composite of details of murals featured in ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/o Murals under Siege, designed by Amy Inouye, FutureStudio, 2017
LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes/California Historical Society

The mural, located on Olvera Street, which graphically depicts the crucifixion of a Mexican Indian on a cross crowned with an American eagle, was considered dangerously anti-American and was whitewashed within a few years of completion.

The far-reaching Getty Conservation Institute, of course, has played a significant role in the mural’s continued inspiration. On October 9, 1932, the patrons who commissioned América Tropical were scandalized when the mural was unveiled. Expecting a benign, romanticized tropical scene for the newly developed Mexican marketplace, Olvera Street, their dismay by Siqueiros’s surprise political message, resulting in the mural’s almost immediate whitewashing, a process that continued over a few years. 

As Siqueiros later explained in a 1971 documentary by Chicano filmmaker Jesús Treviño, “for me ‘America Tropical’ was a land of natives, of Indians, Creoles, of African-American men, all of them invariably persecuted and harassed by their respective governments.”

The Getty Conservation Institute’s Monitoring Notebook and a visual of América Tropical on the roof of the recently renovated Italian Hall at El Pueblo de Los Angeles National Monument, March 21, 2017
Photo: Shelly Kale; mural: © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/SOMAAP, Mexico City

In 2012, eighty years to the day after the mural’s first unveiling, a second unveiling made news. This time, however, there was cause for celebration. On October 9, 2012, after a nearly $10 million restoration funded by the City of Los Angeles and the Getty Conservation Institute, the mural as it had emerged—ghostlike—from behind four decades of whitewash in the 1970s was carefully conserved and protected, enhanced by an interpretive center that explained its conservation and artistic legacy.

This writer wonders: Might this conserved version of the mural serve the same role in inspiring today and tomorrow’s Chicana/o muralists? Might the PST: LA/LA initiative inspire greater dialogue between Latino communities across North America?

Shelly Kale
Publications and Strategic Projects Manager

Erin Curtis, Jessica Hough, Guisela Latorre, ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/Chicano Murals under Siege (Los Angeles: Angel City Press, 2017)


Learn more about ¡Murales Rebeldes! L.A. Chicana/o Murals under Siege at http://muralesrebeldes.org

Learn more about Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA at http://www.pacificstandardtime.org/ 

#onthisday 50 years ago, singer Joan Baez was arrested as part of Stop the Draft Week

Stop the Draft Week, October 1967
Jerry Palmer, VDC

On October 16, 1967, singer Joan Baez was arrested on the first day of Stop the Draft Week protests in Oakland. Baez was among thousands who protested throughout the week against the Vietnam War in Oakland and elsewhere. The protests, organized in part by a group calling itself "The Resistance,"  were among the most significant protests against the war to date and represented a turn in war protests into active resistance, including the burning of draft cards. 

The focus of the Stop the Draft Week in Oakland was the Oakland Army Induction Center and protesters tried to block the entrance of the building via a sit-in. Baez was among those arrested on the first day of protests, which continued throughout the week in Oakland and throughout the country. The efforts culminated in a massive march on the Pentagon on October 21, 1967. 

In Oakland, some of the protests included chaotic and violent interactions with the police, and seven people were arrested.  Video from Baez's arrest can be seen below:

This Wednesday, October 18th, the California Historical Society in partnership with Shaping San Francisco and the Oakland Public Library will look back at the historic Stop the Draft Protests in Oakland and what they meant for the overall anti-war effort. Read more about that event and the speakers HERE.

Read more about the Stop the Draft protests below:

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Living History: Drink Wine from the Oldest Grapes in California on Olvera Street, Los Angeles

Grapes descended from California’s Mission-era “Vina Madre” (mother vine) create a canopy of shade in the Avila Adobe Courtyard on Olvera Street. They are still producing wine.
California Historical Society; photo: Shelly Kale, July 2017

The destruction and devastation suffered by Northern California vineyards during the recent fires will have significant impact on our state. There will be new beginnings in industry and in families and communities. In this blog, we recall the time when the state's wine industry was first established and gaining prominence in our state's economy.

Historically speaking, with the exception of the Indian wars, great things were happening in California about 150 years ago. The Civil War ended, along with the state’s financial support and participation of the California Brigade, California 100, and California Column. Four Sacramento merchants—Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, and Collis P. Huntington—were financing the Central Pacific Railroad’s construction of tracks for the transcontinental railroad. Yosemite Park was enjoying its newly created status as the state and nation’s first park under federal protection. The University of California was founded, becoming a public trust shortly thereafter. The state’s new and present capitol in Sacramento was under construction.

In Los Angeles, an economic boom was underway due primarily to the production of wine. Whereas most people today might pinpoint Northern California as the birthplace of California wine, it is Southern California—and Los Angeles in particular—that holds this distinction.

The original seal of Los Angeles, in use from 1854 to 1905, identifying it as the City of Vines.
Courtesy Los Angeles Public Library

The Southern California missions were producing wine as early as 1782 at Mission San Juan Capistrano and by 1796, most likely earlier, at Mission San Gabriel. As wine historian Thomas Pinney writes in his definitive The City of Vines: A History of Wine in Los Angeles, by the time Mission San Gabriel was secularized, in 1834, its vineyard reportedly had about 160 acres of vines, making it the largest wine producer among the California missions. A pen-and-ink watercolor from The Bancroft Library collection—created in 1854, shortly after statehood—shows a comparison of the land the mission devoted to grape-growing and to its buildings.

John G. Cleal (Author/Surveyor), Mission San Gabriel, 1854
The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Land Case Map D-916R:04

Ferdinand Deppe (Artist), Mission San Gabriel, 1832
California Historical Society Collections at the University of Southern California

The wine produced at San Gabriel Mission was not made from native California grapes (Vitis girdiana), which were deemed unsuitable for wine. Rather, the mission cuttings that were planted there were the Mission grape, an old Spanish variety from Baja vineyards. It is this vine that was planted at all the California missions.  

Hannah Millard (Artist), Mission Grape, 1872 
Courtesy of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA

And it is the Mission grape vine that was planted—and has been growing for about 150 years—on the pergola in the courtyard of Avila Adobe, Los Angeles’s oldest standing residence, built in 1818 on Olvera Street in downtown Los Angeles. In 2014, Michael Holland, home winemaker and Los Angeless city archivist who rediscovered the vines, sent a sample from this vine to Foundation Plant Services at the University of California, Davis, which conducted DNA analysis.

As FPS manager Jerry Dangle told the Los Angeles Times, the vines “match what has become known as ‘Viña Madre.’ This is the famous ‘old Mission grape of California’ growing at the San Gabriel Mission. We know from our analysis of samples from San Gabriel that this variety is a first-generation hybrid between a native Southern California grape (Vitis girdiana) and the European grape (Vitis vinifera) variety ‘Mission—a cross between the grapes that the Spanish missionaries brought over in 1769 and local wild desert grapes.

Vitus californica (Vitus girdiana)
L.H. Bailey, Standard Cyclopedica of Horticulture (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1917)

After harvesting the grapes from the rooftop vineyard, Holland produces angelica, a blend of adobe's grape and neutral grape brandy, derived from an 1891 Mission Santa Barbara recipe. It made sense to make angelica—the fortified wine invented in Los Angeles at the time of the mission system by the parish priests," Holland explained. 2017 will mark the third vintage of this living history project. The vines are healthier today than they have been in quite some time. The harvest has grown from 40 pounds in 2015 to 70 in 2016. We may have more than that this year, he observed last month.

Winemakers Michael Holland (center) and Wes Hagen pruning the vine on Olvera Street, where the Avila Adobe vines extend, 2016
Courtesy KPCC; photo: Sanden Totten

As of this writing, Holland has picked 50 pounds of the adobe’s Mission grapes from the courtyard pergola. Each pick, he told this writer, has focused on the ripened clusters while other have been left to further ripen. The last pick is scheduled for Friday October 22, during which most clusters will be harvested. The total poundage of grapes could be close to last year’s 70 pounds or greater.

Wine and history buffs will have an opportunity to learn for themselves the results of this year’s harvest by attending the book launch of wine historian Thomas Pinney’s The City of Vines: A History of Wine in Los Angeles, winner of the 2016 California Historical Society Book Award, co-published by CHS and Heyday. 

And we all will be watching the harvest of 2018, when the city celebrates the Avila Adobe’s 200th anniversary.

Shelly Kale
Publications and Strategic Projects Manager


The City of Vines Launch Party
Wednesday, October 18, 2017
6 PM – 9 PM
Avila Adobe Courtyard
El Pueblo Historical Monument
125 Paseo de la Plaza, Olvera Street, Los Angeles
RSPV: jherrington@calhist.org

Michael Holland, email correspondence with the author, October 12, 2017
Michael Holland, “Pouring wine at LA’s historic Olvera Street,” Cellarmasters of Los Angeles, September 2017; http://cellarmastersla.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CMSept2017.pdf

Maya Sugarman, “Making wine from a Piece of LA’s early history,” KPCC, May 20, 2016; http://www.scpr.org/news/2016/05/20/60818/making-wine-from-a-piece-of-l-a-s-early-history/

S. Irene Virbila, “What to do with grapes from 150-year-old vines at Olvera Street? Make wine, of course,” Los Angeles Times, September 18, 2015; http://www.latimes.com/food/drinks/la-fo-0919-pueblo-20150919-story.html

Friday, October 13, 2017

#onthisday in 1849, the first California Constitution was signed

On October 13, 1849, California's first constitution was signed in Monterey after six weeks of meetings in Colton Hall. A description of the final day of the Constitutional Convention can be found here.

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

San Pedro: Slice of History

Adrien Machefert (Artist), "Life and Travels of Richard Henry Dana, Jr.” mural portraying early San Pedro and its harbor activity, c. 1939
Courtesy Los Angeles Public Library, Works Progress Administration Collection

On October 8, 1542, the Portuguese explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailed into a natural harbor and marshland at the northwestern end of San Pedro Bay. He called it Bahia de Los Fumas (Bay of Smokes) for the smoke rising from the surrounding hillsides where Native Americans hunted.

So began the area’s historic road to becoming the nation’s preeminent port. The pathways on this road were many, some smooth, others uncertain, and some treacherous. From Cabrillo’s “discovery,” to Spanish settlement in 1769, to settlement surges during the Mexican and American eras, to becoming Los Angeles’s official port in 1897, opportunities in pleasure and tourism, industry and commerce inspired many.

In this post, we look at aspects of the port’s history through a quieter lens, the place where the hermit fisherman Tommy Leggett made his home.

Inspired by the photograph below, the following essay was written by Shelly Kale, CHS's Publications and Strategic Projects Manager, for publication in the forthcoming issue of California History 94, no. 4 (Winter 2018), © 2018 by the Regents of the University of California. Reprinted by permission. The author has further illustrated it to provide a visual sense of time and place. California History is published by the University of California Press in association with the California Historical Society. 

Helen Lukens Jones (Photographer), San Pedro Fisherman, c. 1900
 California Historical Society, California Counties Photography Collection

“A hermit’s life is one shifted by the tide of progress.”1
This photograph, made at San Pedro Bay around the turn of the twentieth century, depicts the solitary fisherman, surrounded and nourished by the ocean’s bounty. The clutter of accoutrements of life at sea—nets, ropes, barrels, the catch of the day—nearly dominate the scene. Ocean and sky reflect a peaceful allure.

The fisherman appears as a bridge between the land on which he works and sea and sky. A close-up might show the customary signs of his vocation: a face deeply lined and tanned from exposure to salt and sun, hands calloused or hardened from working ropes and nets. Yet, his position in the photograph is critical to the seascape, anchoring our eye as if to emphasize the scene’s human element. Sitting on a jetty, corncob pipe in mouth, he cleans his catch with seeming disregard of time in an idyllic partnership with the sea.

As the nineteenth century came to a close, however, the San Pedro mainland and bay islands were not the same places of “peace and refuge”—as Los Angeles Harbor historian Geraldine Knatz describes them—of only a few decades earlier.2 The area was, in historian William Deverell’s words, one of “breathtaking coastal beauty and the site of ruthless industrial ambition.”3 Here humans led the inevitable march of progress to today’s super-port complex of Los Angeles/Long Beach, with the largest volume of commerce in the United States, importing an estimated $200 billion of cargo each year.4

David Deis (Cartographer), Tongva Sites of Los Angeles (detail showing San Pedro Bay)
Published in Patricia Akida, ed., LAtitudes: an Angeleno’s Atlas (Heyday, 2015)
Courtesy https://decolonialatlas.wordpress.com/2017/07/26/tongva-sites-of-los-angeles

The transformation, of course, is inscribed in the region’s human history. Native Americans found abundance here, establishing villages from Redondo Beach (Engnovangna) to San Pedro (Harasagna, Ataviangana, Xujungna) to Alamitos Bay (Puvungna).5 As early as 1850, when California achieved statehood, San Pedro merchants eager for economic development requested that Congress establish San Pedro Bay as an official Port of Entry.6 San Pedro’s incorporation as a city in 1888; selection in 1897 as the official Los Angeles-area port (following the decade-long “Free Harbor Fight” with Santa Monica Bay); incorporation into Los Angeles in 1909; the port’s role in commerce and industry during two world wars and the post-World War II boom and the onset of the container age in the 1960s—all are signposts along the road to the port’s national preeminence by the turn of the twenty-first century.7

Detail, Port of Los Angeles Petition, 1850
Courtesy Los Angeles City Archives

Letter, John Temple to U.S. State Senator Thomas Hart Benton, May 27, 1850
Letter accompanying a petition to Congress to make the Port of San Pedro a Port of Entry
Courtesy Los Angeles City Archives

“Los Angeles Harbor, 1930—with tonnage second only to New York Harbor”
California Historical Society Collections at the University of Southern California

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Map of Port Facilities at Los Angeles, Calif., 1967
Courtesy Los Angeles Archivists Collective

And what of the hermit’s life during this “tide of progress”? Writer and amateur photographer Helen Lukens Jones’s photograph above of fisherman Thomas (Tommy) Leggett cleaning his catch of crabs—perhaps on the old East Jetty in East San Pedro on Rattlesnake (later Terminal) Island—provides no visible clue.8 But we know that he occupied various squatters’ shacks around the bay, beginning with Mormon Island in 1876. There he lived in the old “Parson’s House,” a squatter’s claim owned by Captain Albert A. Polhemus.9 According to David E. Hughes, ranking civilian engineer at the Los Angeles Engineer District in the first half of the twentieth century, the house was “in the way of repairing scows, so one evening when he [Leggett] came in from fishing he found his shack on Terminal [Rattlesnake] Island, instead of Mormon Is, but was soothed by offer of wood and water.”10 

Detail, Topographic map, San Pedro Bay, 1894

California Topographic Maps, University of Texas at Austin, University of Texas Libraries

Despite the insecurities of a squatter’s life, Leggett was, as his island squatter neighbor and friend Charles Fletcher Lummis wrote, “one of the gentlest, most unselfish, and most lovable of neighbors.”11 Lummis was one of the over 100 residents from the 1880s to the 1910s who made Terminal Island home, squatting in his beloved harbor cabin the Jib-O-Jib.12 He provided care for “Uncle Tommy” prior to his death and as the administrator of Leggett’s estate, arranged for his funeral and the sale of his belongings (two shotguns, a rifle, a stove, a lamp, a few saws, nets, skiffs, sail, and mast, among few other articles), and notified family members across the Atlantic.13  

Charles F. Lummis (Photographer), The Jib-O-Jib, 1908 (printed mid-1900s)
Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum of the American West
Gift of Mr. Charles F. Lummis, P.15607

Leggett lived on Rattlesnake Island in the 1880s (his residence appears on an 1885 map) and at Timms’ Point in San Pedro.14 At the end of the decade, he was evicted from that residence and returned to Rattlesnake (then Terminal) Island, where he died on July 14, 1909. During his nearly thirty years at the harbor, he would see the San Pedro coastline burst with commercial fishing vessels; the growth of shipping and railroad infrastructure, businesses, and homes; and the construction of the Port of Los Angeles. In the year of his death, consolidation with the City of Los Angeles would intensify the area’s transformation, bringing city services to San Pedro and funding for further harbor development.

Hansen & Solano, Map of a Part of the Rattlesnake Island (details) showing “Leggit” residence (top of detail at right), October 27, 1885
The Huntington Library, Manuscripts Department, Solano-Reeve collection

F. H. Maude, Pacific Stereopticon Co., Lantern slide of fishing fleets at Terminal Island, 1900s
Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum of the American West, LS.13664

To Leggett it must have appeared that the world had rushed in to San Pedro Bay, but this writer is convinced that, as much as possible, he would have maintained the seafaring routine for which he was known: “Tommy lived by his wits, and sustained himself by the bounty of the sea,” Geraldine Knatz has written, “At night he would take his boat out for a 10- to 12-mile run, dragging his nets, getting back early the next morning. He scraped by, earning a few dollars here or there, selling fish and investing it in nets. That didn’t set too well with the Department of Fish and Game, who issued a complaint against him in February 1900 for fishing without a license. Hermits just don’t get fishing licenses.”15

Charles F. Lummis (Photographer), Thomas Leggett, May 21, 1909
Braun Research Library Collection, Autry Museum of the American West,
Gift of Mr. Charles F. Lummis, P.32473

The author thanks Geraldine Knatz, PhD, former executive director of the Port of Los Angeles, and Liza Posas, head librarian and archivist of the Autry Museum’s Braun Research Library, for their research assistance.

1.      Geraldine Knatz, “The Hermits of Terminal Island—Part 1: The Tale of Tommy Leggett,” Historical Archives at the Port of Los Angeles, September 23, 2015; Portlaarchives, https://portlaarchives.wordpress.com/2013/09/05/the-hermits-of-terminal-island-part-i-the-tale-of-tommy-leggett/, accessed October 5, 2017.
2.      Naomi Hirahara and Geraldine Knatz, Terminal Island: Lost Communities of Los Angeles Harbor (Los Angeles: Angel City Press, 2015), 21.
3.      Ibid., 9–10, 19.
4.      James Preston Allen, “A Long Journey from Brighton Beach,” Random Lengths News, August 15, 2015; http://www.randomlengthsnews.com/2015/08/a-long-journey-from-brighton-beach, accessed October 5, 2017.
5.      L. J. Weinman and E. G. Stickel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Areas Cultural Resource Survey (Los Angeles: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, April 1978).
6.      Henry P. Silka, San Pedro: A Pictorial History (Los Angeles: San Pedro Bay Historical Society, 1984). Although the designation finally was granted in 1853, the San Pedro port would never compete with San Francisco, the state’s first official Port of Entry, where the “world rushed in” during the Gold Rush.
7.      Accounts of the port’s history include William F. Deverell, Railroad Crossing:  Californians and the Railroad, 1850–1910 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994) and “The Los Angeles ‘Free Harbor Fight,’” California History 70, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 12–29; J. M. Guinn, “The Lost Islands of San Pedro,” Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California 10, no. 1/2 (1915–1916): 95–100; Anna Marie Hager, “A Salute to the Port of Los Angeles from Mud Flats to Modern Day Miracle,” California Historical Society Quarterly 49, no. 4 (December 1970): 329–335; Los Angeles Harbor Department, The Port of Los Angeles: From Wilderness to World Port (Los Angeles: Los Angeles Harbor Department, 1983); Charles F. Quenan, Long Beach and Los Angeles: A Tale of Two Ports (Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications, 1986).
8.      San Pedro was part of the first Spanish land grant in California. In 1784, King Carlos III granted 75,000-acres to Juan Jose Dominguez, a retired Spanish soldier. The Spanish named Rattlesnake Island La Isla de la Culebra de Cascabel (Isle of the Snake of the Rattle) for its large number of rattlesnakes. When the island was purchased from the Dominguez heirs in 1891 by the Terminal Company, it was renamed Terminal Island on the expectation that it would become the terminus for a rail route from Utah to Los Angeles.  See Guinn, “The Lost Islands of San Pedro,” 98–99; Hirahara and Knatz, Terminal Island, 3035.
9.      Geraldine Knatz, “The Capture of Mormon Island,” History of the Port of Los Angeles, unpublished manuscript, 2017.
10.   Hughes, D. E., Memorandum on Resurvey of Mormon Island, July 4, 1916, David E. Hughes Papers (18801942), University of California Riverside, Box 1, Item 7, in email correspondence from Geraldine Knatz to the author, October 3, 2017. The memorandum includes handwritten addenda dated May 26, 1930. In his capacity as civilian engineer, Hughes built breakwaters and fortifications for Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor.
11.   Hirahara and Knatz, Terminal Island, 67.
12.   Holly Rose Larson, “The Dear Old Jib-O-Jib (Squatters at the Harbor),” https://autrylibraries.wordpress.com/2011/01/20/the-dear-old-jib-o-jib-squatters-at-the-harbor/, accessed October 1, 2017.
13.   Charles Fletcher Lummis Papers, 18881928, Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center, Los Angeles, CA; MS.1.
14.   Hirahara and Knatz, Terminal Island, 2122.
15.   Knatz, “The Hermits of Terminal Island.”

Shelly Kale
Publications and Strategic Projects Manager